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Table 3 Multinomial logistic regression analysis, stratified by ethnic group, of the relationship between depression and the extent of chronic pain

From: Ethnic differences in the association between depression and chronic pain: cross sectional results from UK Biobank

   Ethnic group
Level of adjustment^   Extent of chronic pain White RRR (95 % CI) Asian RRR (95 % CI) Black RRR (95 % CI)
Model 1 – no adjustment 1 pain site 1.36 (1.32, 1.40) 1.25 (0.99, 1.57)** 1.58 (1.25, 2.00)
2–3 pain sites 1.89 (1.82, 1.95) 1.97 (1.57, 2.47) 2.29 (1.80, 2.92)
4–7 pain sites 3.16 (2.94, 3.40) 3.46 (2.35, 5.09) 4.26 (2.87, 6.33)
Pain all over the body 2.96 (2.64, 3.31) 3.65 (2.41, 5.52) 4.32 (2.82, 6.61)
Model 2 - adjusted for demographic factors 1 pain site 1.35 (1.31, 1.39) 1.22 (0.97, 1.54)** 1.61 (1.27, 2.05)
2–3 pain sites 1.82 (1.76, 1.89) 1.92 (1.53, 2.41) 2.23 (1.74, 2.86)
4–7 pain sites 2.94 (2.73, 3.17) 3.30 (2.22, 4.90) 4.18 (2.78, 6.29)
Pain all over the body 2.80 (2.49, 3.14) 3.60 (2.37, 5.48) 4.05 (2.61, 6.29)
Model 3 - adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors 1 pain site 1.31 (1.27, 1.36) 1.16 (0.92, 1.47)** 1.52 (1.19, 1.95)*
2–3 pain sites 1.72 (1.66, 1.78) 1.82 (1.47, 2.34) 2.11 (1.64, 2.73)
4–7 pain sites 2.66 (2.47, 2.87) 3.02 (2.00, 4.58) 3.63 (2.36, 5.58)
Pain all over the body 2.48 (2.20, 2.79) 3.23 (2.08, 5.00) 4.10 (2.59, 6.50)
Model 4 – adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and morbidity count 1 pain site 1.29 (1.24, 1.33) 1.14 (0.90, 1.45)** 1.49 (1.16, 1.91)*
2–3 pain sites 1.63 (1.57, 1.69) 1.77 (1.40, 2.24) 1.98 (1.53, 2.56)
4–7 pain sites 2.35 (2.17, 2.54) 2.52 (1.65, 3.87) 3.23 (2.09, 4.99)
Pain all over the body 2.19 (1.94, 2.47) 2.63 (1.67, 4.13) 3.31 (2.05, 5.33)
  1. All individual associations were significant at p < 0.001 except for *p ≤ 0.002 and **p > 0.05
  2. Overall models were significant at p < 0.001
  3. ^ Referent group for all models is the free of chronic pain group