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Table 1 Prevalence of chronic pain and depression overall and by ethnic group

From: Ethnic differences in the association between depression and chronic pain: cross sectional results from UK Biobank

   Ethnic groupa
  Overall N = 144,139 White N = 135,703 Asian N = 4539 Black N = 3897
Presence of chronic painb     
 Yes N (%) 58,785 (40.8) 54,949 (40.5) 2081 (45.8) 1755 (45.0)
Extent of chronic painb     
 0 N (%) 85,354 (59.2) 80,754 (59.5) 2458 (54.2) 2142 (55.0)
 1 32,948 (22.9) 31,040 (22.9) 1023 (22.5) 885 (22.7)
 2–3 20,975 (14.6) 19,554 (14.4) 791 (17.4) 630 (16.2)
 4–7 3371 (2.3) 3096 (2.3) 145 (3.2) 130 (3.3)
 Pain all over the body 1491 (1.0) 1259 (0.9) 122 (2.7) 110 (2.8)
Depression (lifetime history)b     
 Yes N (%) 31,080 (21.6) 29,957 (22.1) 584 (12.9) 539 (13.8)
Depression and chronic pain statusb     
 Free of depression and chronic pain N (%) 69,942 (48.5) 65,795 (48.5) 2214 (48.8) 1933 (49.6)
 Depression only 15,412 (10.7) 14,959 (11.0) 244 (5.4) 209 (5.4)
 Chronic pain only 43,117 (29.9) 39,951 (29.4) 1741 (38.4) 1425 (36.6)
 Chronic pain and depression 15,668 (10.9) 14,998 (11.1) 340 (7.5) 330 (8.5)
Sexb     
 Female N (%) 79,596 (53.1) 72,166 (53.2) 2122 (46.8) 2308 (59.2)
Age (years)b     
Mean (SD) 56.8 (8.1) 57.1 (8.1) 53.6 (8.6) 52.3 (8.0)
Townsend Index quintiles     
 Missing data N 230 210 10 10
 1 (least deprived) N (%) 24,482 (17.0) 24,091 (17.8) 304 (6.7) 87 (2.24)
 2 29,077 (20.2) 28,557 (21.1) 351 (7.8) 169 (4.4)
 3 29,978 (20.8) 28,959 (21.4) 674 (14.9) 345 (8.9)
 4 32,347 (22.5) 29,760 (22.0) 1575 (34.8) 1012 (26.0)
 5 (most deprived) 28,025 (19.5) 24,126 (17.8) 1625 (35.9) 2274 (58.5)
Smoking status     
 Missing data N 445 389 35 21
 Never N (%) 80,000 (55.7) 73,679 (54.5) 3544 (78.7) 2777 (71.7)
 Former 53,717 (37.4) 52,184 (38.6) 718 (15.9) 815 (21.0)
 Current 9977 (6.9) 9451 (7.0) 242 (5.4) 284 (7.3)
Frequency of alcohol intake     
 Missing data N 66 44 15 7
 Daily/almost daily N (%) 30,118 (20.9) 29,530 (21.8) 335 (7.4) 253 (6.5)
 3–4 times/week 33,362 (23.2) 32,552 (24.0) 412 (9.1) 397 (10.2)
 1–2 times/week 36,663 (25.5) 35,204 (30.0) 664 (14.7) 795 (20.4)
 1–3 times/month 16,190 (11.2) 15,239 (11.2) 378 (8.4) 573 (14.7)
 Special occasions only 16,376 (11.4) 14,388 (10.6) 876 (19.4) 1112 (28.6)
 Never 11,364 (7.9) 8745 (6.5) 1859 (41.1) 760 (19.5)
BMI     
 Missing data N 980 765 126 89
 Mean (SD) 27.5 (1.8) 27.4 (4.7) 27.0 (4.4) 29.6 (5.4)
Morbidity countb     
 Mean (SD) 0.9 (1.0) 0.8 (1.0) 0.9 (1.1) 0.9 (1.0)
Current depressive symptom score     
 Missing data N 11,511 10,018 833 660
 Mean (SD) 1.5 (2.0) 1.4 (1.9) 2.5 (2.8) 2.2 (2.7)
  1. SD Standard deviation; BMI Body mass index
  2. aDifferences between groups were statistically significant at p < 0.001 for all variables (tested by Chi2 test for categorical variables and Kruskal Wallis test for continuous variables)
  3. bNo missing data