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Table 2 Comparison of BinaxNOW-positive (pneumococcal) and -negative (non-pneumococcal) patients with serious lower respiratory tract infection (Total and Follow-Up cohorts)

From: Pneumococcal lower respiratory tract infections in adults: an observational case-control study in primary care in Belgium

  Categories Non-Pneumococcal SLRTI (N = 518) Pneumococcal SLRTI (N = 26) P value
Mean ± SD or N (%) Mean ± SD or N (%)
Total cohort     
Demographics     
Age   55.1 ± 18.1 52.2 ± 19.2 >0.050
Age group 18-49 years 195 (37.6) 11 (42.3) >0.050
  50-64 years 157 (30.4) 6 (23.1)  
  ≥65 years 166 (32.0) 9 (34.6)  
Gender Male 246 (47.5) 6 (23.1) 0.016
  Female 272 (52.5) 20 (76.9)  
Smoking status Smoker 160 (30.9) 9 (34.6) >0.050
  Former smoker 115 (22.2) 4 (15.4)  
  Non-smoker 243 (46.9) 13 (50.0  
Activity and revenue Without revenue 57 (11.0) 5 (19.2) >0.050
  Replacement revenue 40 (7.7) 4 (15.4)  
  Self-employed 18 (3.5) 1 (3.8)  
  Manual worker 106 (20.5) 6 (23.1)  
  Employee 99 (19.1) 1 (3.8)  
  Manager 9 (1.7) 0 (0.0)  
  Retired 189 (36.5) 9 (34.6)  
Exposition to young children   277 (53.6) 7 (26.9) 0.009
Living conditions At home 500 (96.5) 26 (100.0) >0.050
  Nursing home 15 (2.9) 0 (0.0)  
  Institution 3 (0.6) 0 (0.0)  
Medical history     
Influenza vaccination   141 (27.2) 2 (7.7) 0.037
Pneumococcal vaccination   60 (11.6) 4 (15.4) >0.050
Co-morbidities Asthma 57 (11.0) 6 (23.1) >0.050
  Chronic bronchitis 55 (10.6) 6 (23.1) >0.050
  Diabetes 42 (8.1) 3 (11.5) >0.050
  Renal insufficiency 28 (5.4) 4 (15.4) >0.050
  COPD 83 (16.0) 11 (42.3) 0.002
  Cardiovascular illness 92 (17.8) 4 (15.4) >0.050
  Immunological illness 6 (1.2) 1 (3.8) >0.050
Allergy to antibiotics   41 (7.9) 1 (3.8) >0.050
Clinical symptoms     
Body temperature taken by the physician (°C)   38.2 ± 0.9 38.9 ± 0.6 <0.0001
Body temperature taken by the patient (°C)   38.9 ± 0.5 39.0 ± 0.1 >0.050
Breaths per minute   21.5 ± 7.2 27.1 ± 6.2 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)   128 ± 57 111 ± 18 <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure   77 ± 9.2 74 ± 9.1 >0.050
Cough   507 (97.9) 26 (100.0) >0.050
Sputum   399 (77.0) 25 (96.2) 0.026
Shortness of breath   341 (65.8) 19 (73.1) >0.050
Wheezing   227 (43.8) 10 (38.5) >0.050
Coryza   34 (6.6) 0 (0.0) >0.050
Breath sounds   417 (80.5) 22 (84.6) >0.050
Chest pain   286 (55.2) 22 (84.6) 0.004
Muscle ache   314 (60.6) 21 (80.8) 0.040
Headache   282 (54.4) 18 (69.2) >0.050
Disturbed sleep   284 (54.8) 17 (65.4) >0.050
Feeling unwell   433 (83.6) 23 (88.5) >0.050
Shivers   241 (46.5) 16 (61.5) >0.050
Interference with normal activity   351 (67.8) 21 (80.8) >0.050
Confusion/disorientation   40 (7.7) 8 (30.8) 0.001
Diarrhoea   55 (10.6) 11 (42.3) <0.0001
CRB-65 score 0 (best) 292 (56.4) 11 (42.3) >0.050
  1 156 (30.1) 6 (23.1)  
  2 61 (11.8) 5 (19.2)  
  3 (worst) 9 (1.7) 4 (15.4)  
Diagnostic tests     
X-ray radiography   44 (8.5) 5 (19.2) >0.050
X-ray signs No signs 9 (1.7) 0 (0.0) >0.050
  Lobar consolidation 7 (1.4) 2 (7.7) >0.050
  Infiltrate 22 (4.2) 4 (15.4) 0.030
Pleural effusion   2 (7.4) 0 (0.0) >0.050
Blood culture   2 (0.4) 1 (3.8) >0.050
Tentative diagnosis Acute bronchitis 288 (55.6) 1 (3.8) <0.0001
  Bronchopneumonia 87 (16.8) 11 (42.3)  
  Pneumonia 70 (13.5) 6 (23.1)  
  COPD exacerbation 73 (14.1) 8 (30.8)  
Treatment     
Pharmacological treatment   511 (98.6) 25 (96.2) >0.050
  Antibiotics 462 (89.2) 24 (92.3) >0.050
  Antipyretics 405 (78.2) 18 (69.2) >0.050
  NSAIDs 23 (4.4) 1 (3.8) >0.050
  Corticosteroids 83 (16.0) 7 (26.9) >0.050
  Bronchodilators 130 (25.1) 5 (19.2) >0.050
  Antitussives 240 (46.3) 17 (65.4) >0.050
  Low weight heparin 5 (1.0) 1 (3.8) >0.050
  N-acetylcysteine 98 (18.9) 2 (7.7) >0.050
Non-pharmacological treatment   29 (5.6) 5 (19.2) 0.018
  Oxygen 8 (1.5) 1 (3.8) >0.050
  Physiotherapy 25 (4.8) 5 (19.2) 0.010
Sick leave   220 (42.5) 11 (42.3) >0.050
Supplementary home care   14 (2.7) 1 (3.8) >0.050
Hospitalisation   6 (1.2) 2 (7.7) >0.050
Functional status     
EQ-5D index   0.62 ± 0.28 0.35 ± 0.35 <0.0001
EQ-5D visual analogue scale (mm)   52 ± 17 44 ± 22 0.039
Follow-up cohort     
Visits to GPs   1.27 ± 1.30 2.44 ± 1.36 0.001
Working days lost   3.49 ± 4.83 9.56 ± 9.46 <0.0001
Number of days patients needed assistance   2.14 ± 6.34 6.64 ± 9.70 0.014
  1. SD = Standard Deviation; COPD = Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; °C = Celsius degree; mmHg = millimetre of mercury; CRB-65 = Confusion, Respiratory rate, Blood Pressure and Age ≥65 years [16, 17]; NSAID = Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug; EQ-5D index (http://www.euroqol.org/ and reference [18]); GP = General Practitioner; P value = statistical probability of Mann-Whitney, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests as appropriate. Statistical significance for p values <0.00075 (Bonferroni’s correction for the multiplicity of analyses)