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Table 2 Antibiotic prescribing by patient characteristics for exacerbations of asthma (41 patients) and COPD (43 patients)

From: Predictors of treatment with antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids for acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care

  Asthma n(%) P-value COPD/Both n(%) P-value All n(%) P-value
All 6/41 (14.6)   15/43 (34.9)   21/84 (25.0)  
Baseline characteristics
Age       
≥65 years 1/13 (7.7) 0.4 9/25 (36.0) 0.6 10/38 (26.3) 0.5
<65 years 5/28 (17.9)   6/18 (33.3)   11/46 (23.9)  
Gender       
Male 3/15 (20.0) 0.4 5/16 (31.3) 0.5 8/31 (25.8) 0.5
Female 3/26 (11.5)   10/27 (37.0)   13/53 (24.5)  
Smoking status       
Never smoker 2/15 (13.3) 0.6* 2/8 (25.0) 0.7* 4/23 (17.4) 0.8*
Current smoker 3/11 (27.3)   8/16 (50.0)   11/27 (40.7)  
Ex-smoker 1/15 (6.7)   5/19 (26.3)   6/34 (17.6)  
Spirometry       
FEV1/FVC <0.7 3/7 (42.9) 0.05 13/27 (48.1) 0.02 16/34 (47.1) < 0.001
Characteristics at exacerbation
Respiratory symptoms       
Dyspnea, bothersome or very bothersome 6/38 (15.8) 0.6 15/41 (36.6) 0.4 21/79 (26.6) 0.2
very bothersome 2/9 (22.2) 0.4 6/15 (40.0) 0.4 8/24 (33.3) 0.2
Phlegm, bothersome or very bothersome 6/30 (20.0) 0.1 13/32(40.6) 0.2 19/62 (30.6) 0.04
very bothersome 2/7 (28.6) 0.3 4/6 (66.7) 0.09 6/13(46.2) 0.06
Purulence 4/19 (21.1) 0.3 6/18 (33.3) 0.5 10/37 (27.0) 0.4
Coughing, bothersome or very bothersome 6/38 (15.8) 0.6 14/38 (36.8) 0.4 20/76 (26.3) 0.3
very bothersome 2/14 (14.3) 0.7 6/12 (50.0) 0.2 8/26 (30.8) 0.3
Anthonisen criteria combined       
Type III 0/10 (0) 0.08* 2/10 (20.0) 0.4* 2/20 (10.0) 0.1*
Type II 2/15 (13.3) 7/17 (41.2)   9/32 (28.1)  
Type I 4/16 (25.0) 6/16 (37.5)   10/32 (31.3)  
Chest findings Prolonged expiration 4/14 (28.6) 0.09 11/23 (47.8) 0.06 15/37 (40.5) 0.004
Wheezes/rhonchi 4/15 (26.7) 0.1 12/27 (44.4) 0.08 16/42 (38.1) 0.005
Diminished breath sounds 2/4 (50.0) 0.09 7/13 (53.8) 0.08 9/17 (52.9) 0.005
Crackles 2/9 (22.2) 0.4 7/16 (43.8) 0.3 9/25 (36.0) 0.1
Any abnormal chest finding 4/22 (18.2) 0.4 14/34 (41.2) 0.09 18/56 (32.1) 0.03
Lung functiona       
FEV1% predicted < 50 0/1 (0) 0.9* 3/10 (30.0) 0.7* 3/11 (27.3) 0.2*
FEV1% predicted 50-80 2/10 (20.0)   10/25 (40.0)   12/35 (34.3)  
FEV1% predicted ≥ 80 4/25 (16.0)   1/6 (16.7)   5/31 (16.1)  
C-reactive proteinb       
<8 mg/L 4/24 (16.7) 0.9* 3/24 (12.5) <0.001* 7/48 (14.6) 0.001*
8-39 mg/L 2/11 (18.2)   6/10 (60.0)   8/21 (38.1)  
≥40 mg/L 0/1 (0)   5/6 (83.3)   5/7 (71.4)  
Oxygen saturation (SpO2)c       
>95% 5/27 (18.5) 0.3* 6/23 (26.1) 0.06* 11/50 (22.0) 0.01*
93-95% 0/3 (0)   1/8 (12.5)   1/11 (9.1)  
<93% 1/1 (100)   6/9 (66.7)   7/10 (70.0)  
  1. *P-value calculated using linear-by-linear Chi-Square tests otherwise P-value calculated using Fisher’s Exact Test.
  2. a7 missing, 5 in asthma group and 2 in the COPD/Both group.
  3. b8 missing, 5 in asthma group and 3 in the COPD/Both group.
  4. c13 missing, 10 in asthma group and 3 in the COPD/Both group.