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Table 3 Association between modifiable risk factors and presence of prediabetes in men

From: Modifiable risk factors associated with prediabetes in men and women: a cross-sectional analysis of the cohort study in primary health care on the evolution of patients with prediabetes (PREDAPS-Study)

Risk factors Model 1 Model 2
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Smoking habit     
 Current smoker vs. never smoker 0.94 (0.65–1.37) 0.77 (0.51–1.16)
Consumption of alcohol     
 Risky drinker vs. abstinent 1.58 (1.09–2.28) 1.49 (1.00–2.24)
Physical activity     
 WHO recommendations not followed vs. followed 1.13 (0.86–1.48) 1.10 (0.82–1.49)
Breakfast     
 Incomplete or absent vs. complete 1.12 (0.78–1.60) 1.10 (0.75–1.63)
Consumption of fruit     
 Non-daily vs. daily consumption 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 1.26 (0.89–1.77)
Consumption of vegetables     
 Non-daily vs. daily consumption 0.96 (0.74–1.25) 0.88 (0.65–1.19)
Consumption of fish     
 Consumption of <3 vs. >3 times per week 0.88 (0.67–1.16) 0.91 (0.68–1.23)
Consumption of legumes     
 Consumption of <3 vs. >3 times per week 0.87 (0.66–1.14) 0.84 (0.63–1.13)
Blood pressure     
 Hypertension* vs. no hypertension 2.33 (1.76–3.08) 1.86 (1.39–2.51)
Lipids     
 Hypercholesterolemia vs. no hypercholesterolemia 0.85 (0.57–1.27) 0.99 (0.64–1.53)
 Hypertriglyceridemia vs. no hypertriglyceridemia 1.61 (1.07–2.42) 1.19 (0.75–1.90)
 Low HDL-Cholesterol§ vs. high HDL-Cholesterol 1.94 (1.34–2.82) 1.88 (1.23–2.88)
Obesity     
 General obesity|| vs. no general obesity 2.51 (1.88–3.36) 1.43 (0.99–2.06)
 Abdominal obesity vs. no abdominal obesity 2.87 (2.19–3.77) 1.98 (1.41–2.79)
  1. Data are showed in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Model 1 is adjusted for age, educational level, marital status, region of residence, and family history of diabetes. Model 2 is adjusted for all the variables in the table plus age, educational level, marital status, region of residence, and family history of diabetes. Data in bold indicate statistically significant associations.
  2. *Hypertension: mean systolic pressure ≥140 mmHg, or mean diastolic pressure ≥90 mmHg, or being under treatment with antihypertensive drugs, or a personal history of arterial hypertension.
  3. Hypercholesterolemia: plasma total cholesterol ≥250 mg/dl.
  4. Hypertriglyceridemia: plasma triglycerides ≥200 mg/dl.
  5. §Low HDL-Cholesterol: plasma High-Density Lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dl.
  6. ||General obesity: Body Mass Index ≥30 kg/m2.
  7. Abdominal obesity: waist circumference ≥102 cm.