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Table 3 Factors associated with antibiotic use in pre-school children

From: Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

   Unadjusted Antibiotic use Adjusted OR
Factor (survey timepoint) Categories Yes No P value  
Homeopathic use (54 months) Yes 383 (66.1%) 196 (33.9%) p = 0.024 0.84 (0.65, 1.09)
  No 5619 (61.4%) 3525 (38.6%)   
Mother has use of car (33 months) Yes, own 4924 (61.9%) 3025 (38.1%) p = 0.039 *
  Yes, can borrow 120 (62.8%) 71 (37.2%)   
  No 305 (56.6%) 235 (43.5%)   
Mum contacts GP when child ill (54 months) Always 1026 (65.2%) 525 (33.8%) p < 0.0001 1.00
  Usually 1962 (66.7%) 978 (33.3%)   0.97 (0.85, 1.12)
  Sometimes 2375 (57.2%) 1778 (42.8%)   0.69 (0.60, 0.78)
  Never 57 (38.5%) 91 (61.5%)   0.35 (0.24, 0.50)
Mum asks chemist when child ill (54 months) Always 15 (62.5%) 9 (37.5%) p = 0.036 *
  Usually 160 (59.0%) 111 (41.0%)   
  Sometimes 3427 (62.8%) 2028 (37.2%)   
  Never 1818 (59.8%) 1224 (40.2%)   
What mum does with prescribed medicines (54 months) Use all up 4346 (66.5%) 2194 (33.5%) p < 0.0001 *
  Use until better 597 (51.0%) 573 (49%)   
  Save some 63 (54.8%) 52 (45.2%)   
  Share it 10 (62.5%) 6 (37.5%)   
  Back to doctor 36 (70.6%) 15 (29.4%)   
  stopped 28 (57.1%) 21 (42.9%)   
Maternal anxiety (47 months) Yes 1380 (65.3%) 732 (34.7%) p < 0.0001 1.15 (1.03, 1.29)
  No 4078 (60.4%) 2672 (39.6%)   
Child's general health (42 months) Very healthy/mostly well 5289 (61.1%) 3368 (38.9%) p < 0.0001 1.00
  Sometimes ill/never well 234 (79.6%) 60 (20.0%)   1.18 (0.85, 1.65)
Child had vitamins since age 3 (54 months) Yes 2365 (67.9%) 1118 (32.1%) p < 0.0001 1.46 (1.33, 1.61)
  No 3635 (58.6%) 2573 (41.4%)   
Child had wheeze (42 months) Yes 1018 (73.0%) 376 (27.0%) p < 0.0001 1.65 (1.44, 1.89)
  No 4558 (59.6%) 3084 (40.4%)   
Child had earache (42 months) Yes 2168 (76.9%) 650 (23.1%) p < 0.0001 2.70 (2.41, 3.02)
  No 3408 (54.8%) 2810 (45.2%)   
Child had cough (42 months) Yes 4988 (62.9%) 2944 (37.1%) p < 0.0001 1.11 (0.82, 1.49)
  No 588 (53.3%) 516 (46.7%)   
Child had high temperature (42 months) Yes 3812 (66.7%) 1901 (33.3%) p < 0.0001 *
  No 1764 (53.1%) 1559 (46.9%)   
Child had food allergies (42 months) Yes 5522(61.1%) 3513(38.9%) p < 0.0001 *
  No 480 (69.6%) 210 (30.4%)   
Child had dry itchy rash (42 months) Yes 1317 (64.3%) 730 (35.7%) p = 0.006 *
  No 4222 (61%) 2704 (39%)   
  1. * = factor not included in final model as p > 0.05