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Table 3 Breastfeeding characteristics of participants in a case control study of mastitis.

From: A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

  Cases (N = 100)
n (%)
Controls (N = 99)
n (%)
Odds Ratio 95% CI Significance*
Nipple pain 70/99 (71) 35/99 (35) 4.41 2.43 8.02 *p = 0.000
Grazed nipple 47/99 (48) 9/99 (9) 9.04 4.10 19.93 *p = 0.000
Cracked nipple 44/99 (44) 5/99 (5) 15.04 5.63 40.19 *p = 0.000
White spot 16/98 (16) 7/99 (7) 2.56 1.01 6.54 *p = 0.049
Breast engorgement (needed to express) 51/100 (51) 19/99 (19) 1.76 1.19 2.61 *p = 0.005
Blocked duct 52/100 (52) 13/99 (13) 3.70 2.39 5.71 *p = 0.000
Missed feeds 53/99 (54) 36/99 (36) 1.76 1.05 2.93 *p = 0.032
More than 6 hours between feeds 45/100 (45) 38/99 (38) 1.31 0.75 2.31 p = 0.344
Hurrying feeds 38/100 (38) 48/99 (48) 0.92 0.55 1.54 p = 0.745
Feeding less than usual 11/98 (11) 4/99 (4) 0.95 0.70 1.31 p = 0.770
Pressure on breast: bra 37/99 (37) 20/99 (20) 2.36 1.25 4.46 *p = 0.008
Thickness of milk 8/98 (8) 1/99 (1) 0.95 0.62 1.47 p = 0.833
Too much milk 29/100 (29) 17/99 (17) 1.37 1.09 1.73 *p = 0.007
Baby prefers one breast 48/100 (48) 37/99 (37) 1.55 0.88 2.72 p = 0.1293
Amount of breastfeeding:       
Fully 77/100 (77) 84/99 (85)     
Breast and formula 13/100 (13) 15/99 (15)     
Expressing only 10/100 (10) 0/99 (0)     *p = 0.005
Lanolin on nipples 64/100 (64) 35/99 (35) 3.25 1.82 5.81 *p = 0.000
Nipple shields 16/100 (16) 2/99 (2) 9.24 2.06 41.35 *p = 0.004
Breast pads 76/100 (76) 85/99 (86) 0.52 0.25 1.08 p = 0.080
Expressing 86/100 (86) 51/99 (51) 5.78 2.90 11.51 *p = 0.000
Always washed nipples 1/100 (1) 1/99 (1) 0.99 0.06 16.05 p = 0.994
Always washed hands 48/100 (48) 41/99 (41) 1.31 0.75 2.29 p = 0.351
  1. (n = 100 women with mastitis and 99 breastfeeding controls). Melbourne, Australia, 2002–2004.
  2. *chi-square test for all analyses.
  3. **statistically significant.