Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted Odds of Self-reported Diabetes Complications for Subjects with Inadequate and Marginal Literacy Compared to Adequate Literacy

From: Literacy and health outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 1002 adults with diabetes

Complication No. of Study Subjects with Complication. Odds Ratio (95% CI)* P Value
Retinopathy Inadequate 29 (30%) + 1.88 (+0.90, +3.91) .09
  Marginal 21 (34%) + 2.30 (+0.63, +8.44) .21
  Adequate 139 (18%) + 1.0  
Nephropathy Inadequate 8 (15%) +1.05 (+0.39, +2.80) .93
  Marginal 0 (0%) + 0.99 (+0.95, +1.03) .53
  Adequate 36 (9%) + 1.0  
Foot/Leg Problems Inadequate 30 (30%) +0.52 (+0.24, +1.16) .11
  Marginal 27 (44%) + 1.39 (+0.47, +4.12) .55
  Adequate 231 (30%) + 1.0  
Gastroparesis Inadequate 9 (9%) + 1.92 (+0.58, +6.36) .28
  Marginal 6 (10%) + 1.98 (+0.26, +18.07) .55
  Adequate 41 (6%) + 1.0  
Coronary artery disease Inadequate 32 (30%) + 0.76 (+0.36, +1.63) .49
  Marginal 18 (27%) + 1.12 (+0.34, +3.70) .85
  Adequate 144 (17%) + 1.0  
Cerebrovascular disease Inadequate 22 (21%) + 0.86 (+0.39, +1.91) .72
  Marginal 11 (17%) + 0.65 (+1.66, +2.57) .54
  Adequate 85 (10%) + 1.0  
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, race, marital status, insurance, income, duration of diabetes, diabetes education, depression, alcohol use, hypertension, and medication use specific for blood pressure, diabetes, or lipid management and accounting for clustering of patients with physicians. Smoking was included in the models for foot/leg conditions, cerebrovascular disease, and coronary artery disease.