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Table 2 Sensitivities (sens), specificities (spec), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), odds ratios (OR) and likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of clinical signs and symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP) for the presence of obstructive airway disease (n = 60)

From: The added value of C-reactive protein to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with obstructive airway disease: results of a diagnostic study in primary care

Signs/Symptoms Sens 95% CI Spec 95% CI PPV 95% CI NPV 95% CI OR 95% CI LR + 95% CI LR - 95% CI
CRP > 2 mg/l 62.2 46.1–75.9 72.7 51.9–86.9 79.3 61.6–90.2 53.3 36.1–69.8 4.4 1.4–13.8 2.3 1.1–4.7 0.5 0.3–0.8
Dyspnea 62.2 46.1–75.9 47.8 29.2–67.0 65.7 49.2–79.2 44.0 26.7–62.9 1.5 0.5–4.3 1.2 0.8–1.9 0.8 0.4–1.4
Coughing 29.7 17.5–45.8 34.8 18.8–55.1 42.3 25.5–61.1 23.5 12.4–40.0 0.2 0.1–0.7 0.5 0.3–0.8 2.0 1.1–3.7
Expectoration 40.5 26.3–56.5 69.7 49.1–84.4 68.2 47.3–83.6 42.1 27.9–57.8 1.6 0.5–4.7 1.3 0.6–2.8 0.9 0.6–1.3
Wheezing 75.7 59.9–86.6 52.2 33.0–70.8 71.8 56.2–83.5 57.1 36.5–75.5 3.4 1.1–10.3 1.6 1.0–2.5 0.5 0.2–0.9
Smoking history 62.2 46.1–75.9 52.2 29.2–67.0 65.7 49.2–79.2 44.0 26.7–62.9 0.7 0.2–1.9 1.2 0.8–1.9 0.8 0.4–1.4
Auscultation 27.8 15.8–44.0 87.0 67.9–95.5 76.9 49.7–91.8 43.5 30.2–57.8 2.6 0.6–10.6 2.1 0.7–6.9 0.8 0.6–1.1