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Table 1 Preconception Care Interventions

From: Preconception care by family physicians and general practitioners in Japan

Services Intervention
Folic acid supplementation Advise 0.4 mg of folic acid daily (4 mg if previous pregnancy with neural tube defect) three months prior to conception.
Smoking cessation Educate about the risks of smoking during pregnancy and counsel about smoking cessation.
Anemia screen Check hematocrit/CBC and recommend iron supplement if anemia is detected.
Testing for rubella antibody Check IgG rubella antibody before conception. If the test is negative, vaccinate and avoid conception for three months.
Alcohol restriction Screen for alcoholism by using a validated questionnaire, and counsel or refer if positive screen.
Restricting caffeine Restrict caffeine intake to less than 250 mg a day.
Exercise Advise regular to moderate exercise before and during pregnancy.
Calcium supplementation Assess calcium intake and as needed supplement for a target of 1200 mg daily.
Use of basal body temperature* Conduct basal body temperature every morning to identify the day of ovulation.
Timing of intercourse* Advise intercourse every other day around time of ovulation to maximize chances of conception.
  1. *For couples having difficulty conceiving