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Table 1 Clinical "Red Flags" for Immunodeficiency

From: Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia in infancy and childhood – clinical outcome and in vitro immune responses

1 Eight or more new ear infections within 1 year
2 Two or more serious sinus infections in 1 year
3 Two or more months on antibiotics with no effect
4 Two or more pneumonias within one year
5 Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow well
6 Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses
7 Persistent thrush in the mouth or elsewhere on the skin, after age 1
8 Need for intravenous antibiotics to clear infection
9 One or more deep-seated infections such as sepsis, meningitis or cellulitis
10 A family history of primary immune deficiency or early infant death from infection, recurrent infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease
  1. Adapted from: Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: A molecular and genetic approach New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.