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Table 2 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients in the COACH program and usual care groups

From: Nurse-led telecoaching of people with type 2 diabetes in primary care: rationale, design and baseline data of a randomized controlled trial

Characteristic The COACH program (n = 287) Usual care (n = 287)
Sex, no (%)   
Male 173 (60) 180 (63)
Female 114 (40) 107 (37)
Age, years   
Mean (SD) 63.8 (8.7) 62.4 (8.9)
Median (range) 65.9 (35–75) 63.9 (35–75)
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol) 7.0 (53) 7.0 (53)
Mean SD 1.1 (12) 1.0 (11)
Total cholesterol, mg/dl mean (SD) 173 (37) 178 (39)
LDL-C, mg/dl mean (SD) 93 (31) 97 (32)
HDL-C, mg/dl mean (SD) 52 (19) 51 (14)
Triglyceride, mg/dl median (range) 127 (42–1369) 130 (35–1993)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg mean (SD) 133 (18) 132 (17)
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg mean (SD) 75 (10) 76 (10)
BMI (kg/m2) mean (SD) 30 (5) 31 (5)
People at treatment target, no (%)   
HbA1c < 7% (53 mmol/mol) 155 (54) 159 (55)
LDL-C < 100 mg/dl 172 (60) 164 (57)
SBP < 140 mmHg 174 (61) 186 (65)
DBP < 80 mmHg 160 (56) 160 (56)
At target for all above risk factors 40 (14) 46 (16)
BMI < 25 kg/m2 33 (11) 28 (10)
In the subgroup with HbA1c ≥ 7% (53 mmol/mol)   
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol) 7.9 (63) 7.8 (62)
MeanSD 1.0 (11) 0.8 (9)
Self-reported   
Diagnose type 2 diabetes since, no (%)   
≤ 2 years 46 (16) 41 (14)
≥ 10 years 94 (33) 91 (32)
Smokers, no (%) 40 (14) 54 (19)
People with 1st grade relatives with known type 2 diabetes, no (%) 159 (56) 139 (49)
People with 1st grade relatives with cardiovascular disease diagnosis before 60 y.o., no (%) 93 (33) 90 (32)
With regular hypoglycemia, no (%) 26 (9) 36 (13)
People with other chronic condition(s), no (%) 211 (74) 217 (76)
Coronary heart disease 35 (12) 39 (14)
Atherosclerosis 19 (7) 9 (3)
Heart failure 21 (7) 14 (5)
Past MI 11 (4) 14 (5)
Past stroke 11 (4) 4 (1)
Past TIA 8 (3) 5 (2)
COPD 11 (4) 15 (5)
Asthma 13 (5) 19 (7)
Hypertension 111 (39) 113 (39)
Dyslipidemia 81 (28) 80 (28)
Kidney disease 17 (6) 10 (3)
Depression 19 (7) 24 (8)
Neuropathy 10 (3) 16 (6)
Having physical activity* of 30 minutes at least 5 days per week, no (%) 170 (59) 159 (55)
Having daily healthy diet**, no (%) 181 (63) 157 (55)
  1. *Physical activity is moderate aerobic activity at 50–70% of maximum heart rate (1).
  2. **Healthy diet (HD) means regular meals spread evenly throughout the day, low in fat, particularly saturated fat, and sugar and based on high fiber carbohydrate foods. HD implies daily consumption of at least two pieces of fruit and 300 g vegetables.