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Table 3 GP advice on diet and physical activity and status of health, lifestyle risk factors, accessing to primary health care and health self-management, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics

From: Preventive care in general practice among healthy older New South Wales residents

  Dietary and physical activities advice
Characteristics Eating less cholesterol diet Eating more fruits & vegetables More physical activity
   % Diet RR crude (95% CI) RR adj. (95% CI)* % FV RR crude (95% CI) RR adj. (95% CI)* % PA RR crude (95% CI) RR adj. (95% CI)*
Demographics           
Gender Female (†) 26.0 1 1 12.9 1 1 19.5 1 1
  Male 27.4 1.06(1.02, 1.09) 1.07(1.03, 1.11) 19.3 1.50(1.43, 1.57) 1.56(1.48, 1.63) 20.6 1.06(1.02, 1.10) 1.09(1.05, 1.14)
Age group 45-59 (†) 26.3 1 1 15.5 1 1 21.3 1 1
  60-74- 26.8 1.02(0.99, 1.05) 0.97(0.93, 1.00) 15.6 1.00(0.96, 1.05) 0.86(0.82, 0.91) 18.5 0.87(0.84, 0.90) 0.82(0.78, 0.86)
Country of birth Australia (†) 26.4 1 1 14.8 1 1 1 1  
  Overseas 27.1 1.03(0.99, 1.07) 1.03(0.99, 1.07) 18.2 1.23(1.17, 1.30) 1.22(1.16, 1.29) 21.3 1.09(1.04, 1.14) 1.09(1.04, 1.14)
Rurality (ARIA+) Major City(†) 27.6 1 1 16.9 1 1 22.0 1 1
  Inner Regional 25.9 0.94(0.90,0.98) 0.92(0.88,0. 96) 14.7 0.87(0.82,0.93) 0.85(0.80, 0.90) 19.0 0.86(0.82,0.91) 0.85(0.80, 0.89)
  Outer/Remote 26.8 0.97(0.93, 1.02) 0.94(0.90, 0.99) 15.2 0.90(0.84, 0.97) 0.87(0.81, 0.93) 18.3 0.83(0.78, 0.88) 0.81(0.76, 0.86)
Socioeconomic status           
Education Less than Year 10 31.5 1.34(1.26, 1.43) 1.33(1.24, 1.42) 22.7 1.78(1.64, 1.94) 1.69(1.55, 1.85) 24.6 1.34(1.24, 1.45) 1.39(1.29, 1.51)
  Year 10 28.3 1.21(1.15, 1.27) 1.21(1.15, 1.28) 16.5 1.30(1.21, 1.39) 1.40(1.30, 1.50) 21.1 1.15(1.08, 1.22) 1.22(1.15, 1.30)
  Year 12 28.0 1.20(1.14, 1.26) 1.17(1.12, 1.24) 17.9 1.41(1.31, 1.51) 1.28(1.19, 1.38) 20.3 1.10(1.04, 1.17) 1.11(1.05, 1.18)
  Certificate/diploma 26.3 1.12(1.07, 1.18) 1.12(1.07, 1.18) 14.1 1.11(1.03, 1.18) 1.12(1.04, 1.20) 19.1 1.04(0.98, 1.10) 1.06(1.00, 1.12)
  University (†) 23.4 1 1 12.7 1 1 18.4 1 1
Household income <$20,000 29.5 1.18(1.11, 1.25) 1.10(1.03, 1.18) 21.6 1.54(1.42, 1.66) 1.49(1.37, 1.61) 23.0 1.15(1.08, 1.24) 1.18(1.10, 1.28)
  $20,000-$39,999 27.2 1.08(1.03, 1.14) 1.04(0.98, 1.09) 15.9 1.13(1.06, 1.21) 1.13(1.05, 1.22) 19.4 0.97(0.92, 1.03) 1.02(0.96, 1.09)
  $40,000-$59,999 27.1 1.08(1.03, 1.14) 1.05(0.99, 1.11) 15.2 1.08(1.01, 1.17) 1.09(1.01, 1.18) 19.3 0.97(0.91, 1.03) 1.01(0.95, 1.08)
  $60,000-$79,999 26.3 1.05(0.99, 1.11) 1.03(0.97, 1.09) 15.0 1.07(0.98, 1.16) 1.07(0.99, 1.16) 19.9 1.00(0.93, 1.07) 1.02(0.95, 1.10)
  $80,000+ (†) 25.1 1 1 14.1 1 1 19.9 1 1
Lifestyle risk factors           
Smoking status Current 26.4 1.01(0.94, 1.09) 0.96(0.89, 1.04) 17.4 1.16(1.05, 1.28) 0.99(0.90, 1.09) 21.0 1.07(0.98, 1.17) 0.99(0.91, 1.08)
  Ex-smoker 27.5 1.06(1.02, 1.10) 1.04(1.00, 1.07) 16.3 1.09(1.03, 1.14) 1.00(0.95, 1.05) 20.4 1.04(1.00, 1.09) 1.02(0.98, 1.07)
  Never smoked (†) 26.0 1 1 15.0 1 1 19.6 1 1
BMI Underweight 24.9 1.49(1.39, 1.61) 1.48(1.37, 1.59) 15.6 1.74(1.57, 1.93) 1.70(1.54, 1.88) 18.0 1.91(1.74, 2.11) 1.94(1.77, 2.14)
  Normal weight (†) 16.7 1 1 8.9 1 1 9.4 1 1
  Over weight 27.2 1.63(1.56, 1.71) 1.62(1.55, 1.70) 15.8 1.77(1.65, 1.89) 1.64(1.54, 1.76) 19.4 2.07(1.95, 2.21) 2.09(1.96, 2.22)
  Obese 42.6 2.55(2.44, 2.67) 2.52(2.41, 2.64) 26.2 2.93(2.74, 3.13) 2.76(2.59, 2.95) 39.1 4.17(3.93, 4.42) 4.18(3.94, 4.44)
Physical activity Sedentary 32.2 1.29(1.19, 1.41) 1.25(1.15, 1.36) 25.2 1.84(1.66, 2.03) 1.69(1.53, 1.86) 35.7 2.21(2.04, 2.39) 2.14(1.97, 2.31)
  Insufficient 31.3 1.26(1.21, 1.31) 1.24(1.19, 1.29) 20.1 1.46(1.39, 1.54) 1.40(1.33, 1.47) 30.3 1.88(1.80, 1.96) 1.84(1.77, 1.92)
  Sufficient (†) 24.9 1 1 13.7 1 1 16.2 1 1
Adequate vegetable consumption # Yes (†) 26.5 1   15.5 1 1 19.9 1 1
  No 32.0 1.21(0.93, 1.56) 1.11(0.86, 1.43) 35.2 2.27(1.79, 2.89) 1.75(1.40, 2.20) 28.8 1.45(1.10, 1.91) 1.28(0.97, 1.69)
Health status           
Anxiety status Yes 31.8 1.23(1.17, 1.29) 1.23(1.18, 1.29) 18.8 1.24(1.16, 1.33) 1.27(1.19, 1.36) 27.6 1.45(1.38, 1.53) 1.44(1.36, 1.52)
  No (†) 25.9 1 1 15.1 1 1 19.0 1 1
Depression Yes 31.6 1.23(1.18, 1.29) 1.24(1.19, 1.29) 18.8 1.26(1.19, 1.33) 1.28(1.20, 1.35) 27.8 1.51(1.44, 1.58) 1.49(1.42, 1.56)
  No (†) 25.6 1 1 15.0 1 1 18.5 1 1
High blood pressure Yes 35.5 1.46(1.41, 1.51) 1.46(1.41, 1.51) 22.1 1.58(1.50, 1.66) 1.56(1.48, 1.64) 30.3 1.74(1.67, 1.81) 1.80(1.73, 1.88)
  No (†) 24.4 1 1 14.0 1 1 17.4 1 1
High cholesterol Yes 47.5 2.05(1.98, 2.12) 2.06(1.99, 2.13) 26.6 1.93(1.84, 2.04) 1.90(1.80, 1.99) 29.7 1.62(1.54, 1.70) 1.65(1.57, 1.72)
  No (†) 23.2 1 1 13.8 1 1 18.4 1 1
Access to PHC           
Timing of visiting a particular doctor Same day (†) 27.1 1   17.5 1 1 20.5 1  
  Next day 27.1 1.00(0.95, 1.05) 1.01(0.96, 1.06) 15.9 0.91(0.85, 0.98) 0.95(0.88, 1.02) 20.0 0.97(0.91, 1.04) 1.00(0.94, 1.07)
  2-3 days 26.5 0.98(0.93, 1.03) 1.00(0.95, 1.05) 15.2 0.87(0.81, 0.93) 0.93(0.87, 0.99) 20.3 0.99(0.93, 1.05) 1.03(0.98, 1.10)
  4-5 days 26.1 0.96(0.91, 1.02) 0.98(0.92, 1.04) 14.3 0.82(0.75, 0.89) 0.87(0.80, 0.95) 19.1 0.93(0.87, 1.00) 0.98(0.91, 1.05)
  More than 5 days 26.5 0.98(0.93, 1.03) 0.99(0.94, 1.05) 14.7 0.84(0.78, 0.91) 0.91(0.85, 0.98) 19.8 0.96(0.91, 1.03) 1.03(0.96, 1.09)
Timing of visiting any doctor Same day (†) 26.7 1   15.7 1 1 20.0 1  
  Next day 26.6 1.00(0.95, 1.04) 0.99(0.95, 1.03) 15.1 0.96(0.91, 1.02) 0.96(0.90, 1.02) 20.3 1.01(0.96, 1.06) 1.02(0.97, 1.08)
  2-3 days 26.9 1.01(0.96, 1.06) 1.00(0.95, 1.05) 15.7 1.00(0.93, 1.07) 0.98(0.92, 1.05) 20.1 1.00(0.95,1.07) 1.02(0.96, 1.09)
  4-5 days 27.2 1.02(0.94, 1.10) 1.01(0.93, 1.09) 15.0 0.96(0.86, 1.07) 0.94(0.84, 1.05) 20.0 1.00(0.91, 1.10) 1.02(0.93, 1.12)
  More than 5 days 28.4 1.06(0.99, 1.14) 1.04(0.97, 1.12) 17.8 1.13(1.03, 1.25) 1.08(0.98, 1.19) 20.8 1.04(0.95, 1.13) 1.06(0.97(1.16)
Visiting GP urgently same day Yes (†) 27.2 1 1 16.1 1   20.4 1 1
  No 28.6 1.05(1.01, 1.10) 1.04(1.00, 1.09) 16.2 1.00(0.94, 1.07) 0.99(0.93, 1.05) 22.0 1.08(1.02, 1.13) 1.07(1.02, 1.13)
Self-management           
Confidence in managing own health Yes (†) 20.0 1 1 10.7 1 1 12.4 1 1
  No 31.5 1.57(1.51, 1.63) 1.57(1.52, 1.63) 19.2 1.79(1.70, 1.89) 1.73(1.64, 1.82) 25.6 2.07(1.97, 2.16) 2.05(1.96, 2.15)
  1. † Reference category, *Adjusted for gender, age, remoteness, country of birth, education and household income. # Adequate 5 or more portions per day.