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Table 2 Practice and family profile of models and bivariate association with the continuity score

From: Predictors of relational continuity in primary care: patient, provider and practice factors

Practice characteristics Profile distribution Association with continuity across all models   Standardized effect size
  CHC FFS FHN HSO Effect Size (%)1 95% CI3 ES/SD
Practice type (n) 35 35 35 32    
Mean # FP and NP 5.5 2.5 3.9 1.8 −0.94 (−1.2, -0.55) ** M
Panel size1 (1000’s)†2,4 1.3 1.8 1.5 2 −0.33 (−0.12, 0.65) S
Booking intervals (min)† 25 13 14 14 −0.17 (−0.31, -0.038) * M
Solo practice5 0 26 37 38 3.7 (5.7, 1.7) ** VL
Presence of nurse(s) (%)† 97 31 69 75 −2.7 (−4.6, -0.81) ** M
Number of nurses6 2.7 0.6 2 1.1 −1.1 (−1.6, -0.50) ** VL
# hours practice open out of (8am-4pm) 12 8 7 5 −0.32 (−0.48, -0.16) ** L
Open on weekends 20 20 23 0 −5.3 (−7.6, -3.0) ** M
Contextual factors        
Hospital (<10km) 71.4 85.3 94.1 86.7 −0.74 (−3.1, 1.6) T
Rurality index4 14 12.6 16.2 8 −0.0085 (−0.063, 0.046) T
Family physician characteristics 108 58 80 42    
Average years since graduation† 19 22 23 29 0.19 (0.082, 0.30) ** T
Female FP (%)5 58 45 41 26 −3 (−5.2, -0.86) ** L
Provider foreign trained (%)§ 9.3 17.2 2.5 14.3 2.2 (−2.0, 6.4) T
Provider has CFPC degree (%) 79 85 78 68 −0.77 (−3.3, 1.7) T
>24 hours on call/week (%) 17.6 12.1 19 36.6 3.2 (0.82, 0.55) ** VL
  1. 1 ES/SD: Effect Size / Standard deviation; S if ES/SD < 0.2; M if 0.2 < =ES/SD < 0.5; L if 0.5 < =ES/SD < 0.8; VL if ES/SD > =0.8; CI = Confidence Interval; FP = family physician; NP = Nurse Practitioner; CFPC = College of Family Physicians of Canada.
  2. 2 Symbols adjacent to the practice factor indicate that it is statistically different across the models: § p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001. These are generated by Chi-square statistic or by F-statistic (ANOVA), as appropriate.
  3. 3 Symbols adjacent to the confidence intervals indicate that the effect size is significantly associated with the continuity score: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01. These are generated by multi-level linear regression.
  4. 4 Average number of patients per full time equivalent family physician in the practice.
  5. 5 Reflects practices that host a single family physician only.
  6. 6Number of full time equivalent nurses and nursing assistants.
  7. 4 Refers to the Rurality Index of Ontario adopted by the Ontario Medical Association (https://www.oma.org/economics/data/RuralityRIO.pdf).
  8. 5 We only captured the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents. The percent of a female family physician in the practice reflects the percentage of female family physician respondents.