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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample stratified by gender and bereavement status

From: Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

  Males Difference Females Difference
Bereaved Non-bereaved Bereaved Non-bereaved
N (%) 76 1501   109 2355  
(4.8%) (95.2%)   (4.4%) (95.6%)
Age       
 mean 47 46 Z = −1.084 50 50 Z = −.189
 SD (14.11) (17.14) p = .278 (13.95) (18.06) p = .850
Educational level (%) basic 17 282 χ2 = 1.373 38 774 χ2 = 3.353
(22.4%) (18.8%) p = .503 (35.2%) (32.8%) p = .187
 secondary 51 1016   61 1213
(67.1%) (67.7%) (56.0%) (51.5%)
 higher 8 203 10 368
(10.5%) (13.5%) (8.8%) (15.6%)
Anxiety       
 mean 0.97 0.62   1.14 0.77  
 SD (1.06) (0.78) Z = −2.820 (0.95) (0.88) Z = −4.376
p = .005 p < .001
Depression       
 mean 12.37 7.64   11.77 9.32  
 SD (13.84) (10.55) Z = −3.206 (13.30) (11.77) Z = −2.662
p = .001 p = .008
Somatic symptoms       
 PHQ-15 mean 5.20 3.43   6.71 5.31  
 SD (6.00) (3.84)   (5.87) (4.97)  
 minimal 45 1064   50 1313  
(58.5%) (70.9%)   (45.9%) (55.7%)
 mild 21 312   30 624  
(27.2%) (20.8%)   (27.5%) (26.5%)
 moderate 5 94   17 266  
(6.2%) (6.2%) (15.6%) (11.3%)
 severe* 6 31 Z = −2.471 12 152 (6.5)% Z = −2.722
  (8.1%) (2.1%) p = .013 (11.0%)   p = .006
  1. * minimal: 0–4, mild: 5–9, moderate: 10–14, severe: 15–30 [11].