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Table 2 Studies comparing CBT-I to pharmacological therapies: post-treatment results

From: Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a systematic review

Study
Follow-up & method
Group, N Sleep latency Total sleep time Total wake time Sleep efficiency Other Adverse effects Notes
CBT-I vs. zopiclone SWS   
Sievertsen 2006 [29] 6 weeks CBT-I: 18 Not reported –26.2 min –56.4 min +7.5% +17.2 min None  
Zopiclone: 16 –65.6 min –3.9 min –0.8% –15.1 min 1 withdrawal
  p = NS p < 0.001 p = NS p = 0.002
Polysomnography
Sleep diary CBT-I: 18 Not reported +16.9 min –48.3 min +11.8%   
Zopiclone: 16 +34.6 min –25.8 min +8.1%
  p = NS p = NS p = NS
CBT-I vs. zolpidem
Jacobs 2004 [30] CBT-I: 13 –15.5 min –2.6 min Not reported +5.5%   No withdrawals due to side effects p values based on number of patients with satisfactory latency or efficiency
8 weeks Zolpidem: 12 –6.1 min –51.6 min +2.1%
Sleep monitor   p = NS p = NR p = NS
Sleep diary CBT-I: 13 –33.8 min +48.6 min Not reported +17.3%
Zolpidem: 12 –12.8 min +69.2 min +2.1%
  p < 0.05 p = NR p = 0.007
CBT-I vs. temazepam       WASO   
Wu 2006 [32] CBT-I: 19 –35.9 min +21.6 min Not reported +9.2%   Not reported p values based on post-intervention differences
8 weeks Temazepam: 17 –44.9 min +66.5 min +14.3%
Polysomnography   p < 0.01 p < 0.004 p < 0.05
Sleep diary CBT-I: 19 –37.0 min +38.7 min Not reported +13.4%  
Temazepam: 17 –53.2 min +73.5 min +15.1%
  p < 0.001 p < 0.01 p < 0.01
Morin 1999 [31] CBT-I: 18 Not reported +6.8 min Not reported +8.5% –32.5 min Not reported  
8 weeks Temazepam: 17 +35.3 min +7.5% –23.3 min
Polysomnography   p = NS p = NS p = NS
Sleep diary CBT-I: 18 Not reported +30.5 min Not reported +16.5% –27.3 min
Temazepam: 17 +43.7 min +10.3% –25.6 min
  p = NS p = NS p = NS
CBT-I vs. triazolam
McCluskey 1991 [33] CBT-I: 15 –44 min +40 min Not reported Not reported   Not reported  
3 weeks Triazolam :15 –45 min +57 min
Sleep diary   p = NS p = NS
  1. SWS Slow wave sleep, WASO Wake after sleep onset.