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Table 1 Classification of the gaps/barriers identified in the targeted countries/region.

From: International challenges without borders: a descriptive study of family physicians' educational needs in the field of diabetes

   Country/Region Type  
Phase of the Continuum of Care Themes: Gaps and barriers Austria Canada Germany UK Knowledge Skill Attitude Behaviour Context References
Condition Pathophysiology of diabetes X   X X X      EIMSED-NA
Diagnosis Diagnosis criteria   X X X   X X    AXDEV-NA, BMJ-GAP, [47, 48]
  Pre-diabetes    X X   X     BMJ-GAP, [43]
  Lack of screening   X      X X X AXDEV-NA
Testing Assessment of treatment targets X X X X   X X    AXDEV-NA, BMJ-GAP, [3032, 40, 49, 50]
Treatment Explaining drugs' modes of action X   X X X X     BMJ-GAP, EIMSED-NA, [48]
  Decision-making in therapies X X X X   X X X   AXDEV-NA, BMJ-GAP, EIMSED-NA, [48, 5154]
  Treatment guidelines X   X X X      EIMSED-NA, [34, 35, 55]
  Insulin therapy X   X X X X X    BMJ-GAP, EIMSED-NA, [36, 37, 56]
Management Adherence X X X X   X X X X AXDEV-NA, EIMSED-NA, [38, 39]
  Management of complications X   X X X X X X   BMJ-GAP, EIMSED-NA, [41, 5759]
  Lifestyle changes   X X X   X X    AXDEV-NA, BMJ-GAP, [43, 44, 60]
  Patient education   X X   X X     AXDEV-NA-NA, BMJ-GAP-GAP, [44]
  Blood pressure control   X       X   [61]
  Tele-monitoring   X      X   X [62]
  Computerization of management   X      X X X [2]
  Psychological care   X   X X X X X   AXDEV-NA, [63]
  Motivation for long-term follow-ups   X     X X X   AXDEV-NA
  Interprofessional teamwork   X    X   X    [48]
  Lack of secondary support     X      X [64]
Referral Suboptimal team integration   X X X   X X X   BMJ-GAP, [45, 47, 48]
Context Bureaucracy X X X X     X X AXDEV-NA, EIMSED-NA
  Long waiting lists   X        X [65]
  Care for the aboriginal population   X        X [40]
  Access and cost   X        X [40, 65, 66]
  Third party payers X   X X      X EIMSED-NA, [67]
Other Physicians' resistance to change     X    X X   [54]
  Lack of resources     X      X [54]
  Physicians' bias towards obesity   X      X    [68]
  Disengagement of patients   X     X X    AXDEV-NA
  Provider-Patient relationships   X     X X X   AXDEV-NA
  1. Note: Gaps and barriers presented in bold are those that were common in at least 3 of the 4 targeted countries.