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Table 4 Socio-demographic characteristics, consultation frequency, long-term drug use and medical history in dizzy and non-dizzy patients aged 65 years or older in family practice

From: Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

  Prevalence (%)   
  Non-dizzy
(n = 46611)
Dizzy
(n = 3990)
Univariate
p
Multivariate* OR (95% CI)
Gender, female 57.2 65.9 < 0.001†  
Age in years, mean (SEM) 74.5 (0.03) 76.1 (0.11) < 0.001†  
Health care insurance    < 0.001†  
   Public health 72.8 77.2   
   Private 27.2 22.7   
   Unknown/missing 0.1 0.1   
Living alone    < 0.001† 1.3 (1.2-1.4)
   Yes 25.6 34.8   
   No 69.8 60.6   
   Unknown/missing 4.6 4.6   
Education    < 0.001†‡  
   None 1.4 1.5   
   Elementary school 37.4 43.6   1.2 (1.1-1.3) §
   High school 32.5 30.2   
   College or university 6.4 4.2   
   Unknown/missing 22.4 20.5   
Consultation frequency, mean (SEM) 6.3 (0.03) 12.8 (0.18) < 0.001†  
Long-term drug use||     
   Number of drugs, mean (SEM) 1.6 (0.01) 2.3 (0.04) < 0.001†  
   Polypharmacy (> 5 drugs) 6.3 11.0 < 0.001†  
Medical history     
   Number of diagnoses, mean (SEM) 1.9 (0.02) 2.5 (0.06) < 0.001†  
   Anxiety syndrome 0.2 0.5 < 0.001†  
   Cataract 2.0 3.7 < 0.001†  
   Cerebrovascular disease 2.9 5.3 < 0.001† 1.3 (1.1-1.5)
   Coronary artery disease 7.5 11.4 < 0.001†  
   Depression 1.7 3.0 < 0.001†  
   Diabetes mellitus 7.3 9.8 < 0.001†  
   Hypertension 12.8 18.1 < 0.001† 1.2 (1.1-1.3)
   Impaired hearing 2.7 4.2 < 0.001†  
   Impaired vision 0.6 1.0 0.006†  
   Myocardial infarction 2.1 2.8 0.02  
   Unknown/missing 24.1 17.4   
  1. *: Forward stepwise logistic regression (entry p < 0.05, removal p < 0.1), adjusted for gender, age and consultation frequency
  2. †: Statistically significant difference between non-dizzy and dizzy patients ≥ 65 years (p < 0.01)
  3. ‡: Linear-by-Linear Association
  4. § Reference: college or university
  5. ||: Criteria: a) ≥ 3 prescriptions per drug during one year of registration
  6. b) > 180 days between first and last date of prescription per drug during one year of registration
  7. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; SEM = standard error of the mean