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Table 1 General RIAS communication codes.

From: Frequency of GP communication addressing the patient's resources and coping strategies in medical interviews: a video-based observational study

Name Description Example Corresponding RIAS codes
Social talk All aspects of social conversation, personal remarks, laughter, and compliments, not related to the patient's health status. So, you managed to get here in time despite the heavy snow this morning – exhausting, eh? Personal remarks, social conversation Laughs, tells jokes
Biomedical questions All questions regarding symptoms, illness, or biomedical treatment. How is your lower back pain? Asks questions (open or closed ended)
- medical condition
- therapeutic regimen
Biomedical information Facts and figures, advice, opinions and suggestions regarding the patient's biomedical health status. You need to take these pills to relax your tense muscles Gives information/counsels
- medical condition
- therapeutic regimen
Questions about lifestyle and psychosocial issues All questions regarding psychological, lifestyle, social or other non-biomedical issues. Any progress on your weight-loss programme so far? Asks questions (open or closed ended)
- lifestyle
- psychosocial
- other
Information about lifestyle and psychosocial issues Facts and figures, advice, opinions and suggestions regarding psychological, lifestyle, social, or other non-biomedical issues. You see, the strain on your lower back gets more intense the more you gain weight. Gives information/counsels
- lifestyle
- psychosocial
- other
Gives orientation All sorts of instructions or direction of patient actions during the examination. Please take off your shirt so I can take a look. Gives orientation
Transition words
Facilitation Process-oriented utterances, more than two words, or comments or questions to facilitate the interview or check on understanding. All right, I see... Shows agreement
Backchannel responses
Paraphrases, checks for understanding
Bid for repetition
Asks for understanding
Asks for opinion
Empathy An emotionally laden supportive utterance or comment to confirm the patient's speech. Oh yeah, that must be really painful Empathy
Reassurance, optimism
Shows approval
Shows disapproval Comments of criticism, anger or hostility. You must stop smoking! Shows disapproval
Shows criticism
Residual, Unintelligible Phone calls during the consultation or other irrelevant utterances. Coder not able to understand the GP's speech.   
  1. Pooled codes applied in the study and corresponding RIAS codes.