Prevalence, evaluation and management of overactive bladder in primary care
© Cheung et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 22 May 2008
Accepted: 23 January 2009
Published: 23 January 2009
Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) are under-diagnosed in the primary care setting. Primary care physicians (PCP) approach to the patient and appropriate patient disclosure may contribute to under-diagnosis.
An outpatient primary care setting was used to determine the prevalence and characteristics of OAB. Patients who visited the family medicine outpatient clinic were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire. It included questions on evidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (modified Overactive Bladder-Validated 8-question Screener [OAB-V8]), relevant medical and surgical history, and demographic data. Relationship between OAB and other independent variables were analyzed using chi-square and risk ratio (RR) analysis.
Of 325 questionnaires distributed, 311 were returned completed. Patients ranged from 18 to 97 years, the majority women (74.0%) and African American (74.3%). OAB was present in 60.5% of men and 48.3% of women (p = 0.058). OAB was significantly associated with obesity (BMI > = 30) in women (p = 0.018, RR = 1.72), specifically obese premenopausal women (age < 55 years) (p = 0.011, RR = 1.98).
OAB prevalence is more than double and higher in men than previously reported. The relative risk for OAB is significantly greater in obese premenopausal women.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common disorder that negatively affects the quality of life [1, 2] of our patients and carries a large socioeconomic burden . OAB is a condition caused by sudden involuntary contraction (over-activity) of the bladder detrusor muscles. According to the International Continence Society (ICS), it is characterized as urinary urgency, with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia, in the absence of causative infection or pathological conditions . On the basis of a population-based survey of 16 776 men and women aged 40 years and older conducted by Milsom et al  in 6 countries, by telephone or direct interview, the prevalence of OAB in Europe has been estimated to be 15.6 and 17.4% for men and women respectively, with an overall prevalence of 16.6%. In the NOBLE survey in which 11740 Americans agreed to participate, overall prevalence of OAB was 16.9% in women and 16.0% in men .
It is expected that the primary care practitioner (PCP) will identify and initiate the management of patients with OAB . Despite its high prevalence, many afflicted patients remain undiagnosed or untreated [5, 7]. The prevalence of OAB and its evaluation and management in primary care has never been studied in the US. Moreover, little epidemiologic data exists for OAB in ethnic/minority groups.
In a two week period, 325 patients aged 16 years and above who visited one of two family medicine outpatient centers, for non-urological issues, were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire on urinary symptoms while waiting to be seen by their PCPs; physicians also completed a survey regarding their experience of patients with urinary symptoms in their practice (Additional files 1 and 2). 311 patients agreed to fill the questionnaire. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.
The modified patient questionnaire included 8 questions on evidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (Overactive Bladder-Validated 8-question Screener [OAB-V8]) , 2 questions on stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and one question on incomplete emptying of the bladder during urination. Responses were answered on a 6-point Symptom Bother scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 5 (a very great deal). An additional question asked about the effect of urinary symptoms on quality of life (QOL), with answers ranging from 0 (delighted) to 6 (terrible). The questionnaire also asked for data on demographic characteristics and relevant medical and surgical history. Patient weight and height were measured for calculating body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2).
Criteria for LUTS and OAB subtypes
Answer ≥1 to any one of the three OAB-V8 questions on urge to urinate
Answer ≥1 to any one of the two OAB-V8 questions on frequent urination
Answer ≥1 to the OAB-V8 question on nocturia
Urge urinary incontinence (UUI)
Answer ≥1 to one of the two OAB-V8 questions on urine leakage associated with urge
Stress urinary incontinence (SUI)
Answer ≥1 to one of the two questions on urine leakage associated with physical activities, sneezing, coughing, or laughing
Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI)
Meet the criteria for both UUI and SUI described above
Answer ≥1 to the question on incomplete emptying
OAB subtypes (based on presence of above symptoms)
OAB with frequency alone (OAB-F)
OAB-V8 score ≥8 with symptoms of frequency and/or nocturia only
OAB with urgency without incontinence (OAB-U)
OAB-V8 score ≥8 with symptoms of urgency without incontinence
OAB with urge urinary incontinence (OAB-UUI)
OAB-V8 score ≥8 with symptoms of UUI and no SUI
OAB with stress urinary incontinence (OAB-SUI)
OAB-V8 score ≥8 with symptoms of SUI and no UUI
OAB with mixed urinary incontinence (OAB-MUI)
OAB-V8 score ≥8 with symptoms of MUI
Unadjusted age- and sex-specific prevalence of OAB and sex-specific prevalence of LUTS and OAB subtypes were reported. The chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences between the two sexes. To determine the relationship between OAB prevalence and other factors (race, menopausal status, BMI, history of smoking and history of hysterectomy), covariates were first individually evaluated using the chi-square test. Statistically significant (p < .05) covariates were retained for risk ratio analysis. Patients were excluded from a specific analysis if they did not report on the variable to be analyzed. Results are presented as risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (RR, 95% CI).
All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 for Windows.
Characteristics of participants
Characteristic, n (%)
Male (n = 81)
Female (n = 230)
Total (N = 311)
Less than high school
High school graduate
Some college/college graduate
Body mass index (BMI), kg/m2
History of smoking*
Previous surgical history
Urinary leakage surgery**
OAB with UI
OAB without UI
Analysis of the 151 patients without OAB (119 women, 32 men) shows that women reported 53.8% frequency and 44.5% nocturia. Urgency was present in 25.2% of the 119 women, with UUI in 23.3% of these women. SUI was present in 25.2% of the 119 women. Among the men without OAB there were less reported lower urinary tract symptoms (31.3% frequency, 46.9% nocturia and 12.5% urgency).
Prevalence of LUTS and OAB subtypes by gender
Male (n = 49)
Female (n = 111)
OAB with incontinence
The sex-specific differences in OAB subtypes found in this study reveal that the OAB-MUI subtype was significantly more common in women (56.8% women vs 34.7% men, p = .010) and OAB-UUI was significantly more common in men (40.8% vs 22.5%, p = .018). OAB-U was also more prevalent in men, and men were less likely to have OAB with incontinence than women (p > .05).
Prevalence of LUTS and OAB subtypes by menopausal status
Premenopause (n = 111)
Postmenopause (n = 108)
OAB with incontinence
Relative risk for OAB by BMI category
Risk Ratio (RR)**
1.04 – 2.84
1.05 – 3.74
In this study we investigated the prevalence of OAB, its evaluation in primary care using a patient questionnaire. We found an OAB prevalence that is more than double that reported in a recent US population-based study , a finding not previously reported [2, 5, 7]. Variations from earlier studies may be attributed to the methodology of data collection and our non-traditional minority, predominantly female target population. This study used a clinically validated questionnaire  with added questions focusing on stress urinary incontinence to identify OAB patients in primary care. Unlike two population-based studies [2, 7] in which responses regarding LUTS were elicited from non-institutionalized individuals through telephone interviews, our questionnaire relies on self-report by primary care physicians and outpatients. In this sense, our data collection method resembles one office-based PCP study , which had an OAB prevalence estimate that was high (26.5%) and most nearly resembles our results. In all three previous studies cited above, OAB was defined based on the presence and/or frequency of specific LUTS, and the study populations were predominately white. Our study differs in that the OAB criteria are based on scoring on a symptom bother scale and the patient population is predominately black. These differences may explain in part the discrepancy in OAB prevalence observed in the current study compared to those previously reported in the literature.
Significantly more men compared to women with OAB have OAB-UUI in this study. In addition, OAB with incontinence is more common than OAB without incontinence in our study in both men and women. These results are in sharp contrast to data reported previously , which showed women to be more likely to have OAB-UUI, and men to be more likely to have OAB without incontinence. However, when UUI is taken as a symptom, the higher prevalence we found of UUI and SUI in women than in men are consistent with other studies [2, 7]. Most studies on female UI have reported SUI as more common than UUI, especially in younger women,[9, 10] while MUI was the major presentation overall [7, 9, 10]. We find that most women who have OAB have OAB-MUI. However, UUI and OAB-UUI are more prevalent than SUI and OAB-SUI in women with OAB in our study. This finding is supported by others [11, 12] who reported black women to have lower rates of SUI but higher rates of UUI than white women. The significant association between OAB and SUI we found is also supported . While most studies have reported white women to have higher risk for UI in general [9, 13, 14], how this would affect the characterization of OAB prevalence in such population could be the focus of future investigation.
As in earlier reports [2, 5, 7], we find OAB prevalence to increase with advancing age, however this relationship is observed only in men and we do not understand why this association is not found in women. We also find a significant association between OAB and incomplete emptying of the bladder in both men and women. Bladder outlet obstruction leading to incomplete emptying is commonly seen in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in older men. Studies have reported that OAB often coexists with BPH , and the associated incomplete emptying of the bladder as a cause of OAB has been discussed in the clinical scenario of BPH . However, the relation between OAB and incomplete emptying in women may involve mechanisms other than obstruction .
Obesity as a risk factor for OAB [2, 10] and UI [9, 14, 17] has been previously reported. The risk for OAB we found for premenopausal obese women (1.98) is similar to that reported by Stewart et al  (2.2) in obese women with OAB-UUI. In concordance with results reported by Stewart et al, we do not find an association between OAB and obesity in men or in the general population studied. There has been no report of the relationship between smoking and OAB, and smoking is shown as a risk factor for UI in some studies [14, 17] but not others . We do not find any significant association for OAB and smoking in men or women.
Previous studies have demonstrated that hysterectomy increased the risk for UUI  but not SUI [18, 19]. Hysterectomy is thought to contribute to UI through pelvic nerves or pelvic floor damage. Its relationship and contribution to OAB has not been studied, and we do not find any significant association between OAB and hysterectomy in pre- or postmenopausal women.
A number of limitations should be considered when interpreting the results of this study. Language barriers and cultural differences in how comfortable patients would voluntarily answer particular questions are challenges in implementing a questionnaire-based study. Measures have been taken to ensure that questionnaires were distributed to all qualified patients who visited the clinic, with the intention to minimize overestimation of prevalence. In our present study the response rate was 95%. The majority of our OAB patients have all 3 cardinal symptoms (frequency, nocturia, and urgency/UUI), suggesting that they have OAB and should be evaluated and managed as such.
The high prevalence of OAB found in this study suggests that the needs of many of our patients with OAB may not be met by their primary care providers. Increasing the awareness and knowledge of OAB among PCPs and adopting effective clinical approaches such as a reliable, valid and "user-friendly" screening questionnaire may serve to both allow patients with urinary symptoms to comfortably report their bladder related complaints and increase the ability of PCP's to recognize, evaluate and treat OAB. Future studies should focus on differentiating OAB patients across various ethnic groups and in diverse clinic settings. Identifying culturally sensitive strategies for evaluating and managing primary care patients with OAB may help to decrease the burden of OAB and better serve our patients.
- Abrams P, Kelleher CJ, Kerr LA, Rogers RG: Overactive bladder significantly affects quality of life. Am J Manag Care. 2000, 6 (11 Suppl): S580-S590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stewart WF, Van Rooyen JB, Cundiff GW, Abrams P, Herzog AR, Corey R, Hunt T, Wein : Prevalence and burden of overactive bladder in the United States. World J Urol. 2003, 20: 327-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu TW, Wagner TH, Bentkover JD, LeBlanc K, Piancentini A, Stewart WF, Corey R, Zhou SZ, Hunt TL: Estimated economic costs of overactive bladder in the United States. Urology. 2003, 61: 1123-10.1016/S0090-4295(03)00009-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, van Kerrebroeck P, Victor A, Wein A: The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the standardization sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002, 21: 167-10.1002/nau.10052.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Milsom I, Abrams P, Cardozo L, Roberts RG, Thûroff JW, Wein AJ: How wide-spread are the symptoms of an overactive bladder and how are they managed? A population-based prevalence study. BJU Int. 2001, 87: 760-10.1046/j.1464-410x.2001.02228.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg MT, Dmochowski RR: Overactive bladder: Evaluation and management in primary care. Cleve Clin J Med. 2005, 72: 149-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goepel M, Hoffmann JA, Piro M, Rubben H, Michel MC: Prevalence and Physician Awareness of Symptoms of Urinary Bladder Dysfunction. Eur Urol. 2002, 41: 234-10.1016/S0302-2838(02)00014-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coyne K, Margolis M, Zyczynski T, Elinoff V, Roberts RG: Validation of an OAB Screener in a primary care patient population in the US. Presented at the ICS and IUCA 2004 Scientific Programme, August 25–27, Paris, France. 2004Google Scholar
- Melville JL, Katon W, Delaney K, Newton K: Urinary incontinence in US women: A population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 2005, 165: 537-10.1001/archinte.165.5.537.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Teleman PM, Lidfeldt J, Nerbrand C, Samsioe G, Mattiasson A: Overactive bladder: prevalence, risk factors and relation to stress incontinence in middle-aged women. BJOG. 2004, 111: 600-10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00137.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thom DH, Eeden Van den SK, Ragins AI, Wassel-Fyr C, Vittinghof E, Subak LL, et al: Differences in prevalence of urinary incontinence by race/ethnicity. J Urol. 2006, 175: 259-10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00039-X.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Brown JS, Grady D, Ouslander JG, Herzog AR, Varner RE, Posner SF: Prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated risk factors in postmenopausal women. Heart & Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. Obstet Gynecol. 1999, 94: 66-10.1016/S0029-7844(99)00263-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grodstein F, Fretts R, Lifford K, Resnick N, Curhan G: Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003, 189: 428-10.1067/S0002-9378(03)00361-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampselle CM, Harlow SD, Skurnick J, Brubaker L, Bondarenko I: Urinary incontinence predictors and life impact in ethnically diverse perimenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 2002, 100: 1230-10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02241-X.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knutson T, Edlund C, Fall M, Dahlstrand C: BPH with coexisiting overactive bladder dysfunction – an everyday urological dilemma. Neurourol Urodynam. 2001, 20: 237-10.1002/nau.1001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mostwin JL: Pathophysiology: The varieties of bladder overactivity. Urology. 2002, 60 (Suppl 5A): 22-10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01788-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hannestad YS, Rortveit G, Daltveit AK, Hunskaar S: Are smoking and other lifestyle factors associated with female urinary incontinence? The Norwegian EPINCONT study. BJOG. 2003, 110: 247-10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.02327.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vaart van der CH, Bom van der JG, de Leeuw JR, Roovers JP, Heintz AP: The contribution of hysterectomy to the occurrence of urge and stress urinary incontinence symptoms. BJOG. 2002, 109: 149-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Tayrac R, Chevalier N, Chauveaud-Lambling A, Gervaise A, Fernandez H: Risk of urge and stress urinary incontinence at long-term follow-up after vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004, 191: 90-10.1016/j.ajog.2004.01.031.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/10/8/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.